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What is a Primary Source?
- Created at the time of the event
- First-hand information and original data
- Examples include:
- Interviews, diaries, letters, journals, speeches
- Articles with original research, data, or new findings
- Government documents and public records
- Art, maps, photographs, films, and music
What is a Secondary Source?
- A summary or collection of existing data
- One step removed from the original event
- Should have a full citation of original sources (bibliography)
- Examples include:
- Review articles
- Historical films, music, and art
- Articles about people and events from the past
Are your sources credible and useful, or are they a bunch of . . .?!
The CRAAP Test is a list of questions that help you determine if the sources you found are accurate and reliable. Keep in mind that the following list is not static or complete. Different criteria will be more or less important depending on your situation or need.
Currency: The timeliness of the information.
- When was the information published or posted?
- Has the information been revised or updated?
- Is the information current or out-of date for your topic?
- Are the links functional? *
|Relevance:The importance of the information for your needs.
- Does the information relate to your topic or answer your question?
- Who is the intended audience?
- Is the information at an appropriate level (i.e. not too elementary or advanced for your needs)?
- Have you looked at a variety of sources before determining this is one you will use?
- Would you be comfortable using this source for a research paper?
|Authority: The source of the information.
- Who is the author/publisher/source/sponsor?
- Are the author's credentials or organizational affiliations given?
- What are the author's credentials or organizational affiliations given?
- What are the author's qualifications to write on the topic?
- Is there contact information, such as a publisher or e-mail address?
- Does the URL reveal anything about the author or source? examples: .com .edu .gov .org .net *
|Accuracy: The reliability, truthfulness, and correctness of the informational content.
- Where does the information come from?
- Is the information supported by evidence?
- Has the information been reviewed or refereed?
- Can you verify any of the information in another source or from personal knowledge?
- Does the language or tone seem biased and free of emotion?
- Are there spelling, grammar, or other typographical errors?
|Purpose: The reason the information exists.
- What is the purpose of the information? to inform? teach? sell? entertain? persuade?
- Do the authors/sponsors make their intentions or purpose clear?
- Is the information fact? opinion? propaganda?Does the point of view appear objective and impartial?
- Are there political, ideological, cultural, religious, institutional, or personal biases?
Key: * indicates criteria is for Web sources only
This is a modified version of a document created by Sarah Blakeslee at Meriam Library, CSU Chico.