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IB History Internal Assessment (IA)

"Imperialism is the policy or action by which one country forcefully gains and keeps control of another country or territory. Most often, countries use military means to gain economic and political control in other countries. An imperialist state that obtains overseas territories follows a policy usually called colonialism. An imperialist government may want to acquire a territory to gain new markets for its exports and additional sources of inexpensive labor and raw materials. A growing empire may also be used to satisfy an imperialist nation's desire for military advantage or recognition as a world power...

The late 1800's are often called the Age of Imperialism. During this period, Belgium, Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, and Spain divided up nearly all of Africa. They also took over large sections of Southeast Asia and many islands in the South Pacific. Spain surrendered Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines to the United States after losing the Spanish-American War (1898). The determined pursuit of colonies and foreign trade by the major European powers strained international relations. This tension was one of the causes of World War I, which began in 1914...

Imperialism can also be encouraged by patriotism, religion, and a sense of cultural and racial superiority. During the late 1800's, a strong feeling of nationalism (extreme patriotism) swept most European countries. Many people believed their nation's greatness depended on the size of its territory. They encouraged expansion and the planting of their nation's flag on foreign soil. In addition, many Europeans considered the peoples of Africa and Asia to be racially inferior. The lack of industrial development in these lands reinforced this prejudice. Many expansionists thought they had a God-given mission to take new territory and to spread Christianity and the benefits of European culture" (Vontz).

Vontz, Thomas S. "Imperialism." World Book Advanced, World Book, 2021, 

"Comparison of Africa in the years 1880 and 1913. Shows how the Scramble for Africa affected the continent."
davidjl123 / Somebody500, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons


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