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IB History Internal Assessment (IA)

Women's Equal Rights Parade, 1977
Leffler, Warren K, and Thomas J O'Halloran, photographer. Women's Equal Rights Parade. Photograph. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <www.loc.gov/item/2018645703/>.

"The National Women's Political Caucus, formed in 1971, focused on finding and supporting women candidates for political office.

Other groups worked to combat such problems as violence against women. They established crisis and self-help centers. In 1975, women in Philadelphia held a rally and walk called Take Back the Night, to call attention to sexual and domestic violence against women. Since then, women across the United States and throughout the world have held their own Take Back the Night events. The event is sometimes observed under the name Reclaim the Night.

U.S. women’s groups also worked with the government, educational institutions, and the media to empower women and raise awareness of women’s accomplishments. In 1987, the National Women’s History Project, an educational nonprofit organization, successfully petitioned the U.S. Congress to designate March as Women’s History Month. The event is an observance of women's achievements and contributions to society. It coincides with International Women’s Day (March 8), which was first celebrated in Europe in the early 1900’s" (Gustafson).

Gustafson, Melanie S. "Women's movement." World Book Advanced, World Book, 2021, www.worldbookonline.com/advanced/article?id=ar608570. 
Photo: "Take Back the Night March, 1980s" by Duke University Archives is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0

1970

"Newsweek’s “Women in Revolt” cover story on the women’s movement ran on the same day that 46 women Newsweek employees, with Eleanor Holmes Norton as their lawyer, filed an EEOC complaint charging the magazine with sex discrimination. The women charged that women were hired as researchers and men were hired as writers. For its cover story on the women’s movement, Newsweek hired a woman freelance writer."


1971

National Chicana Conference: "At this Houston, Texas, conference, about 600 women discussed specific issues ranging from abortion to childcare centers and debated gender separatism and racial solidarity."


1972

"The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) is a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution designed to guarantee equal legal rights for all American citizens regardless of sex. After Congress passed the ERA [in 1972], it was sent to the states for ratification. In 1979, the ratification deadline was extended to 1982 but no more states approved the amendment. Today the ERA continues to be reintroduced in Congress but progress is slow."

"Ms. Magazine first appeared in 1972 with Gloria Steinem as editor and Pat Carbine as publisher to bring feminist news to readers... Over the years, the magazine’s editors and writers have included many prominent feminists and its articles have raised awareness and contributed to debates about feminist issues"

"Passed as part of the Education Amendments of 1972, Title IX prohibits sex discrimination in any education program receiving federal funds. Its impact has been greatest in the field of athletics"


1973

"Called the “Battle of the Sexes,” this tennis match saw Billie Jean King beat Bobby Riggs in three sets. King continued playing competitive tennis but also dedicated her time to advancing women’s place in the world of sports."

"Roe v Wade: With a 7 to 2 majority, the Supreme Court ruled that state laws making abortion illegal during a woman’s first three months of pregnancy were unconstitutional. Since the decision, abortion rights cases have continued to be argued in the courts."

"American Indian Movement activists occupied the town of Wounded Knee, South Dakota to protest political corruption. Some of the women participants founded Women of All Red Nations in 1974. One of their primary commitments was an effort to combat sterilization abuse."


1974

"The Combahee River Collective’s statement is considered as a founding document in the development of identity politics and the feminist theory of intersectionality, which considers how social categories such as gender, race and class work together to create oppressions."


1975

UN International Women's Year: "The United Nations declared 1976 to 1985 the Decade of Women and four international conferences on women were held, in Mexico City (1975), Copenhagen (1980), Nairobi (1985), and Beijing (1995). A result of the conferences has included resolutions to elimination discrimination and violence against women."


1977

"Chaired by Congresswoman Bella Abzug, the [National Women's Conference] held in Houston formulated a National Plan of Action on 26 issues, including the ERA, abortion, child care, workplace discrimination, and peace. Opponents led by Phyllis Schlafly held their own conference."


1980

"The election of Ronald Reagan as President of the United States and Republican control of the U.S. Senate signaled America’s conservative political turn. Reagan opposed abortion rights, gender equality, affirmative action, and many of the policies of the Great Society."

Women of Color Press: "Among the important books published by this pioneering press, founded and run by women of color, is Home Girls: A Black Feminist Anthology (1983)."


1981

"Sandra Day O’Connor became the first women appointed to the United States Supreme Court in 1981. She was appointed by President Reagan and served until she retired in 2006."


1982

"Ohoyo One Thousand: A Resource Guide of American Indian/Alaska Native Women was compiled by the Ohoyo (“woman” in Choctaw) Resource Center, which was founded by Choctaw women in 1979. The publication profiles more than 1,000 women from 321 tribes who have achieved success in their respective fields. The Ohoyo Resource Center also published Ohoyo Makachi: Words of Today’s American Indian Women."


1983

"Asian Immigrant Women Advocates was founded as a grassroots organization to provide educational assistance to Asian immigrant women and to engage in social justice campaigns. The Garment Workers’ Justice Campaign from 1992 to 1998 raised public awareness about corporate responsibility to workers."


1987

Women's History Month: "Congress designated the month of March to celebrate women’s historical accomplishments following celebrations of International Women’s Day (first celebrated in 1911 on March 8) and Women’s History Week (established in 1980). The National Women’s History Project played a key role in developing Women’s History Month."


“Introduction.” Click - The Ongoing Feminist Revolution - Feminist History, History of Feminism, Women's Rights Movement, History of Women's Rights, Feminist Movement, www.cliohistory.org/click/.

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